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Sociological Studies on Russian Innovation System and Narrative Economics Approach

Sociological Studies on Russian Innovation System and Narrative Economics Approach

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

The article aims to review studies of various aspects of the Russian innovation system, which were conducted under the auspices of the leading sociological centers of the Russian Federation, in order to identify and compare the heuristic potential of the methodical and methodological approaches and models applied, as well as to conduct a secondary analysis of the empirical data obtained through them. Materials of research conducted at the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the National Research University Higher School of Economics, the Russian Public Opinion Research Center, the Central Economics and Mathematics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Association of Innovative Regions of Russia are used in the present study. A secondary analysis of the considered empirical data and approaches to their analysis in the context of improving the heuristic potential of the narrative institutional analysis of the Russian innovation system is carried out. The paper demonstrates that the consistency of narratives and studied data, including indicators of official statistics, is ambiguous. The article considers the interrelation of indicators and narratives about certain problematic issues such as the volume and sources of innovation funding, the importance of intellectual property rights registration for the innovation implementation, the need for long-term planning for the implementation of innovations, the state's focus on stimulation of innovation, the most and least innovative industries and types of economic activities.

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Phenomenon of Megaprojects in Multi-Contour Economy Model

Phenomenon of Megaprojects in Multi-Contour Economy Model

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

The article considers the phenomenon of megaprojects as a type of regional development institutions. It shows that megaprojects complement existing regional development corporations and regional investment forums in Russia and other countries. It is demonstrated that megaprojects are a highly controversial phenomenon, characterised not only by huge amounts of investment but also by severe violations of the planned values of time, financial costs, technical and economic results after the commissioning of the facility. In addition, the current environmental damage from megaprojects is both positive and negative, which makes it impossible to account for its impact in the overall scheme of analysis. The article concludes that megaprojects are informationally closed; therefore, it is almost impossible to collect comprehensive information on them. According to the authors, this is due to the desire of megaproject investors to become "invisible" to statistical and supervisory authorities. Otherwise, many projects may become less attractive with the ensuing risks of conservation of regions in a state of low economic activity. Approaches to assess the target efficiency of megaprojects, as well as their indirect economic efficiency, which is based on the use of the investment multiplier methodology, are proposed. Promising directions for further research on megaprojects are outlined.

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Initiatives of Strategic Development of The Russian Federation: Evolution and Limitations

Initiatives of Strategic Development of The Russian Federation: Evolution and Limitations

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

The paper provides an analytical review of the most significant socio-economic initiatives of the Russian Federation over the past 20 years. The considered period of time is divided into intervals due to the introduction of sanctions by foreign states against the Russian Federation after reunion with Crimea. The complex of strategies of the pre-sanction period, including the doubling of GDP and the "May" decrees of the Russian President in 2012, were mainly related to domestic politics and, in general, were not fully implemented. In particular, the goal of doubling the GDP was only half completed. The trajectory of the Russian Federation as an energy power faced geopolitical confrontation in the European market, which led to the cancellation and complications in the implementation of the South Stream and Nord Stream 2 transnational gas pipeline projects. The anti-crisis strategy of import substitution proclaimed after the announcement of sanctions against the Russian Federation ended with very modest results, although initially it assumed a rise in the development of high-tech industries. The goal-setting of 2018 in the form of national projects and its further revision in 2020 led to an unfinished reboot of the guidelines for domestic socio-economic development. In the face of acute foreign policy confrontation, the Russian Federation demonstrates a high solidarity with global development initiatives, including the Paris Agreement on Climate, as well as antiquated policies and mass vaccination of the population. Despite the already incurred and expected socio-economic damage from joining global development initiatives, this line of behavior of the Russian Federation is sustainable. The analysis of the rhetoric in the national security strategy of the Russian Federation, which has been dynamically changing after 2014, shows the strengthening of the orientation of the Russian Federation towards the East (India, China), as well as an emphasis on the movement towards unity with the Belarusian and Ukrainian peoples.

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Catch-Up Development VS. Forward-Looking Development: from Theoretical Models to Developmental State Practices

Catch-Up Development VS. Forward-Looking Development: from Theoretical Models to Developmental State Practices

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

The presented article was carried out within the framework of scientific project dedicated to Russia's participation in the export and import of institutions. The solid question arose that the conditions and specificity of Russia's place in these processes are related to its position in the global world economy. These problems are considered within the framework of competing concepts of catch-up and forward-looking development in the economic literature. Comparative characteristics of methodological foundations, provisions and normative recommendations of these concepts are highlighted in the article. The analysis shows that there is no ground to justify the absolutization of their differences. Representatives of competing approaches came to the conclusion that it was necessary to search for the optimal configuration of imported and genuine institutions at the level of specific problems of development of countries that were largely on the periphery of the modern global economy. This configuration provides productive orientation of economic actors and creation of favorable conditions for the development of Schumpeterian type innovations. The solution of these tasks is linked with the formation and activities of developmental state. The functions of such a state are fundamentally different from compensating market failures that is characteristic of developed market economy. Such a state acts as a subject that forms the basic institutions of the economic system. Fundamental importance is its ability to ensure the combination of selective imports of institutions with the modification of genuine institutions that have historical and cultural specificity. Characteristics of the reasons and conditions for the successful solution of these tasks by countries such as Japan, Taiwan and South Korea, are highlighted in the article. The success stories are compared to the experience of partial failure of developmental state in Brazil. The fulfilled study is of interest not only for positive analysis, but also for the elaboration of normative recommendations for the formation of optimal configuration of imported and genuine institutions in contemporary Russia.

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Aspects of Electrochemistry in The Development of Russian Energy

Aspects of Electrochemistry in The Development of Russian Energy

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

Today, due to the negative transformation processes that have affected the management system of the Russian industry, government regulation does not bring the desired effect in the chemical industry. This leads to the fact that the rates of development of hydrogen energy are significantly lower than the potential ones. In this work, the development of the chemical industry in the twentieth century and its role in the Russian industry were investigated. During the twentieth century, this industry went through several important levels and in the 1960-1970s a global revolution took place in it. The article describes the structural changes that took place from 1965 to 1980, when, with the help of L.A. Kostandov, the most powerful and gigantic state chemical concern was created. The authors also studied the methods of hydrogen production in different countries, presented the advantages and disadvantages of water electrolysis, the use of energy from nuclear power plants during the period of low loads in the USA, Europe, and Japan. During the study, the problems of the chemical sector in Russia were identified and the negative consequences that can result from ignoring them. Also, the main factors hampering the development of the chemical industry were identified, which determined the relevance of considering the issues of reforming the Russian chemical complex.

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Procedural Issues and Improvement of Judicial Review in Criminal Proceedings

Procedural Issues and Improvement of Judicial Review in Criminal Proceedings

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

The article addresses the issues of the modern development of judicial forms in relation to appellate proceedings in criminal proceedings in a systematic manner and in connection with the development and formation of cassation proceedings, as well as the exceptional procedures for review – judicial supervision and consideration of cases in newly discovered circumstances. This approach has not yet been developed and in terms of the systemic approach has some ambiguities and imperfections. At the same time, this use of almost all the main forms of judicial review takes place in Russia for the first time and needs in-depth analysis. In turn, the appellate procedure for judicial activity in the criminal process has reached a new level, it has significantly expanded and strengthened. A special judicial unit has been established in the judicial system, five appellate courts, which, in the light of the improvement of the procedural procedure for reviewing an appeal, significantly changes its position in the criminal justice system, due, in particular, to the properties of freedom of appeal and appellate validity of decisions and actions.

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Transformation of The Role and Functions of HR in The Conditions of New Economic Challenges

Transformation of The Role and Functions of HR in The Conditions of New Economic Challenges

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

The article discusses the new roles and functions of HR specialists in the context of the formation of a new economic model. The first part of the article discusses the reasons for the change in the role and status of HR in the company and the emergence of new areas of work with personnel. Among the main reasons for HR transformation, the author highlights: the formation of a new model of the business environment – the transition from the VUCA-world to the BANI world; digitalization and active development of the gig economy, which caused the emergence of new forms of social and labor relations; changing the model of the organization itself – the spread of heterarchical structures and cross-functional teams, changing the paradigm of employee management – orientation towards the concept of human capital management. The second part of the article provides an overview of the new HR functions. HR transformation is associated with the expansion of the field of attention and sphere of influence of HR specialists. Currently, the focus of HR work is shifting to strategic issues, deep immersion in business, due to the liberation from routine. At the same time, the content of traditional HR functions is changing: new HR functions are becoming more focused and technologically advanced, new employee management tools and new positions are emerging (for example, HR-marketer, HR-Ambassador, HR-evangelist, happiness manager, HR-business-travel, specialist in managing remote work of employees, etc.). Currently, there is a «war for talents» all over the world, associated with attracting the most promising, highly qualified and unique employees. In these conditions, it is the personnel management system that becomes a competitive advantage.

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Professional Productivity and Subjective Well-Being

Professional Productivity and Subjective Well-Being

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

Despite аn extensive research on subjective well-being conducted over the past decades, there remains uncertainty about whether happier workers are actually more productive. The aim of the study was to analyze the causal relationships between subjective well-being and job performance using employees of leading Russian universities as a case study. The article presents the analysis of subjective well-being of scientific-pedagogical employees in modern universities and indicators of their performance based on empirical research materials. The construct of subjective well-being assessment was based on the existing theoretical models by E. Diener, D. Kahneman, R. Inglehardt. The research program included the assessment of indicators of general perception of happiness, productivity, life satisfaction, job satisfaction indicators by questionnaire survey. For the validity of measurements, the research tools included proven methods and scales: Cantril's Self-Anchoring Scale, questions from studies of subjective well-being and quality of life in the European Social Survey (ESS), WCIOM surveys. In this study, statistical methods such as correlation analysis, Pearson's Chi-square test of agreement, and least squares regression analysis (LSR) were used to analyze the relationships between the level of subjective well-being and the level of scientific productivity. The results of the present study statistically proved a significant positive correlation between the level of subjective well-being and scientific productivity of higher education employees. These data are a signal to revise the views on faculty motivation towards the formation of effective social responsibility, which includes, among other things, the development and implementation of programmes to improve the well-being of their staff.

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Alternative Approaches to The Reform of Higher Education: Manageralism VS. New Public Service

Alternative Approaches to The Reform of Higher Education: Manageralism VS. New Public Service

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

The article is devoted to the analysis of alternative approaches applicable to modern reform of higher education. Last three decades, the set of management technologies of the new public management (NPM) has significantly transformed higher education, introducing application some elements of quasi-markets and metric systems of performance indicators. Their large-scale use was reinforced by the ideology of new manageralism, which builds confidence among managers in effectiveness of their application in higher education. However, the experience of their practical implementation has given rise to negative effects and problems associated with emergence of institutional traps. These traps have become serious obstacles to development of modern higher education. The possible alternative when adjusting development in this sphere can be the concept of “the new public service”, which has been implemented in recent years within civil service reform. This new approach is based on cultivating the set of ethical values and principles that promote openness, transparency, democracy and cooperation between bureaucrats and consumers of public services. Due to some specifics of professional activity in the academic environment, its principles and values can be successfully applied in higher education too. The article offers an interpretation of application of this approach in the context of expanding project education and cultivating key values of the academic community in context of management of higher education.

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Public Procurement Concept as A Path Dependence Result

Public Procurement Concept as A Path Dependence Result

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

The rationale and conditions for transformation of a coordination mechanism in public procurement in Russia from market to redistribution, based on the quasi-market technology, are outlined. The authors view modernization of the economic framework of public procurement as an outcome of institutionalizing the rational conduct principles under the influence of such factors as public production conditions and path dependence. The paper describes transformation of the main elements of the machinery for financing public procurement associated with changing the institutional management structure towards support for the “best quality at an affordable price” principle. Alternatives of transaction managements in the financing system of supplying products for public needs are reviewed: from centralized planning in the USSR to the mixed economy in the today’s Russia. A comparative analysis based on the typical features of the market mechanism for transaction coordination justifies the quail-market nature of public procurement technologies in the Russian Federation. Arguments are given for procurement technology dynamics as returning to redistributive transaction coordination that facilitates transformation of public procurement from an economic-structure neutral into a proactive mechanism geared to form new economic orders. A sequence of tasks is given in order to execute the procurement concept in terms of institutional methodology as well as the prospects for developing a system of public procurement as a mechanism of proactive budgeting policy under bilateral economic sanctions that means de-liberalization of international economic relations. Public contractual system is a factor that is gradually restoring an ability to play a stabilizing and stimulating role in order to support the growth of national production and innovations by employing the taxpayer’s money to attain the national strategic development goals

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Effects of The Digitalization of Contracts in The Public Procurement System

Effects of The Digitalization of Contracts in The Public Procurement System

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

The article is devoted to identifying the effects of digitalization of the public procurement system. The dominant tendency in the development of the procurement system is determined. A review of the individual elements of the public procurement system, which act as objects of digitalization, is carried out. The specific effects of the implementation of digital technologies are analyzed, contributing to the reduction of unfair, opportunistic behavior of customers, and as a result – a decrease in appeals, an increase in the level of transparency, and the availability of procurement. A comparative legal analysis of procurement legislation is carried out. The statistics of appeals to the antimonopoly service is considered. The conclusion about the reduction of transaction costs when transferring public procurement to digital format is substantiated. A conclusion is made about the digital transformation of the public procurement system, which consists in reducing the costs of their distribution and increasing the efficiency of using budget funds.

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The Concept of Introducing Eco-Friendly Criteria into The Contract Procurement System

The Concept of Introducing Eco-Friendly Criteria into The Contract Procurement System

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 4),

The article analyses the current level of development of the topic of "green" public procurement both in Russian legal acts and in domestic scientific literature. The authors conducted a categorical analysis of the term "green" public procurement, based on which the definition recommended for use in the Russian system was derived. The analysis of international experience in the implementation and development of green procurement was followed by a description of the specifics of legal regulation in several countries. By means of an electronic questionnaire survey of contracting system entities, the current level of application of environmental criteria in procurement was empirically assessed and the attitudes of Russian customers and suppliers towards the introduction of new environmental requirements in procurement legislation were identified. Thus, customers are not motivated to use "green" criteria, as they are not aware of them and their application may be regarded by regulatory authorities as a restriction of competition, and suppliers are not interested in producing such products, since they will not be competitive due to the high price. Based on the results obtained, recommendations were developed for the gradual, step-by-step incorporation of norms and practices related to the greening of the procurement process into the contract system.

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