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Discussions about The Asian Mode of Production (The Political Economy of Socialism: The Cognitive Deadlock of The 1970s)

Discussions about The Asian Mode of Production (The Political Economy of Socialism: The Cognitive Deadlock of The 1970s)

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 2),

The paper examines the history of discussions about the Asian mode of production in the USSR, associated with understanding the nature of socialism. Initial interest in the Asian mode of production was associated with the national liberation movements in China and the Middle East, which were supported by the Comintern in the 1920s. The political and economic structure of these countries was not capitalist, but also not feudal. This required the actualization of Marx's ideas and the development of a political strategy to find allies of the communists. Discussions at this time were between supporters of the Asian mode of production and those who considered it a special version of slavery and feudalism. In the 1970s. there is a turn in the interpretation of the Asian way and understanding of socialism, associated with criticism of totalitarianism (Wittfogel) and the bourgeois top of the communist parties (Djilas, Voslensky). K.–A. Wittfogel was one of the first to transfer the concept of the Asian mode of production to the economies of the USSR and Nazi Germany, substantiating the phenomena of total terror, total submission and total alienation. He views Soviet socialism as an institutional mutant, a totalitarian version of state capitalism that has no future and is based on terror. Subsequently R.M. Nureev draws parallels with the Soviet economy in his work on pre-capitalist formations. An interpretation of socialism arises not as a new, advanced social order, but, on the contrary, as a society with backward, non-market institutions. Terror in this case does not play such an important role. The main thing is bureaucratic, non-economic redistribution of products and incomes. The Asian mode of production is considered by Marxists as a transitional method from a social formation to an economic (exploitative) one, and socialism is also a transitional method (from an economic formation to a social one). The transitional methods are characterized by common features – a mixture of advanced elements with backward ones. As a result, Nureev's research did not evoke such a negative attitude as the work of Wittfogel, Djilas, Voslensky. In the late 1970s – early 1980s the concept of «power – property» is formed, which reinforces this interpretation. The recognition of its truth is a delegitimization of the existing social order, and nevertheless, it is rapidly spreading among historians and political economists who adhere to the Marxist interpretation of social processes. This is a striking characteristic of the cognitive deadlock of the political economy of socialism, which, in fact, denies itself. Subsequently the concept of power – property is used to characterize the development trajectory of post-socialist states. Similar views on institutional evolution appear in the Western mainstream (D. North, D. Acemoglu). However, researchers have a «blind spot»: when applying the concept of power – property to Russia, they ignore the proliferation of oligarchy in rich countries. In this respect, the old Marxist approach continues to be relevant and radical in upholding democratic values

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Inflation Expectations and Inflation: Nowcasting and Forecasting

Inflation Expectations and Inflation: Nowcasting and Forecasting

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 2),

Improving the mechanisms for forecasting inflation is an important part of economic science. National central banks, which monitor and manage the dynamics of the price level in the economy, use and develop these mechanisms in practice. Scientists and bank analysts have developed an impressive variety of ways to obtain estimates of inflation expectations of professional economists and ordinary citizens, as well as models for predicting future inflation values. In the last ten years, big data obtained from the Internet has been increasingly used for nowcasting inflation expectations and forecasting price dynamics. In this article, using the methods of correlation and regression analysis, it is demonstrated the validity of measuring the inflation expectations based on queries in Google Trends. In addition, these data turned out to be a fairly good predictor of the CPI level with a one-month lag. And combining the traditional CPI with a one-month lag and query statistics gave the lowest forecast error of all the model specifications considered. The resulting model is more flexible than the classical methods of forecasting inflation, including by taking into account the psychological aspects of economic behavior.

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Evolution of The Functions of Money in The Context of The Approaches of Various Schools of Economic Thought

Evolution of The Functions of Money in The Context of The Approaches of Various Schools of Economic Thought

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 2),

The purpose of this paper is the identification of the functions of money and characteristic of their evolution through change of the used types of money. Research methods are a brief overview and comparative analysis of economic-theoretical approaches to the definition of the functions of money. A comparative analysis of the classifications of the functions of money, made by physiocracy, classical political economy, Marxist political economy, Austrian school of economic theory, German historical school of economics, neoclassical economic theory, Keynesianism, monetarism, institutionalism, modern monetary theory, is carried out. It is shown that various economic schools have different approaches to the definition of the functions of money. Some scientific schools separate money functions for basic and secondary, but other schools consider that all the functions are equally significant. It is concluded that modern changes in the types of money used lead to the fact that different functions of money (in particular, the functions of medium of exchange, measure of value, reserve of value, means of payment) are most effectively implemented by different types of money. Scientific novelty consists in the reconstruction and comparison of lists of functions of money identified by the most important schools of economic theory. The conclusions of the research can be used in scientific and pedagogical activities in the study of the essence and functions of money.

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New Strategy Formation Outlines for The Organizational and Managerial Support of The Southern Federal District Oncology Service Activities

New Strategy Formation Outlines for The Organizational and Managerial Support of The Southern Federal District Oncology Service Activities

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 2),

The article presents the results of the new strategy outlines development for organizational and managerial activities support in the framework of the previously support considered areas: personnel policy; assessment of competencies; infrastructure and digital environment; specialized medical care; scientific policy; quality assessment policy. The basis of the methodological framework is formed by the strategic approach in economics and management. During the empirical part of the study, the following methods were used: the method of expert assessments, the method of SWOT analysis. The resources, external and internal factors, strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats of implementing activities in the field of healthcare institution organizational and managerial support were analyzed on the example of the Federal State Budgetary Institution " NMRC of Oncology" of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation as the " head " organization of the Southern Federal District in the field of "oncology". The instruments of SWOT analysis were carried out in several stages using qualitative and quantitative methods. The article presents a final review of the results of the SWOT analysis, which allows us to draw conclusions about the choice of the contours of organizational and managerial support strategies (the strategy of extreme optimism, which is based on measures to implement existing opportunities, as well as a conservative strategy, which is based on measures that use the strengths of the organization in order to overcome threats). The study confirmed the hypothesis that the contours of the strategy of organizational and managerial support of activities contribute to the strategizing of common goals and objectives and the design of key areas of activity of medical institutions in order to ensure a high level of involvement of employees at all levels in achieving performance indicators and increasing indicators of scientific performance.

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Conceptual Model of Sustainable Development Management Process

Conceptual Model of Sustainable Development Management Process

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 2),

The purpose of this paper is to develop a concept for managing the level of risk of disrupting the sustainable development of the enterprise. The research methodology is based on the system economic theory and the operational theory of risk management. A methodology is proposed for the study of the development and implementation of management decisions in the managerial subsystem, taking into account the identified risks of sustainable development of the enterprise at the intentional, expectational, cognitive and functional stages. Within the framework of these stages, the processes of goal setting, information collection, assessment of the existing environment and forecasting of changes in the enterprise, as well as the processes of implementing decisions are carried out. To shed light on the processes of identifying risk factors and developing appropriate anti-risk managerial impacts depend on the localization in the control object. When decomposing a control object, four types of localization are distinguished: an object subsystem, a process subsystem, a project subsystem, and an environmental subsystem. The implementation of managerial decisions, from the point of view of the object subsystem, can be limited by the high cost of the main production equipment and long life cycles of the finished product. When implementing the developed managerial solutions, there may be a redistribution of profit centers or a change in the way it is generated, which will lead to a change in the characteristics of the enterprise's process subsystem. In the project subsystem, an enterprise can achieve maximum effect by focusing its efforts on the introduction of innovative technologies. The speed of changes in the external environment of the enterprise becomes very high, so the role of forecasting the impact of these changes on the environmental subsystem of the enterprise increases, and applying this knowledge to develop managerial impact, on the one hand, and to adapt the enterprise to these changes, on the other. It is shown that by regulating and eliminating the imbalance in the preparation of managerial impacts, it is possible to reduce the level of risk in the implementation of such decisions.

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The Genesis of The Ecosystem Form of Production Organization in a Modern Economy: Factors and Results

The Genesis of The Ecosystem Form of Production Organization in a Modern Economy: Factors and Results

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 2),

The article identifies the factors that determined the position of companies implementing ecosystem strategies at the top of the ratings of the most expensive companies in the world. The influence of information and technological development on the evolution of production organization forms in the industrial and digital eras and the formation of enterprise strategies in these periods have been analyzed. It was found that the reduction in the cost of computing, storing information, transferring, and processing data by economic agents in the internet era led to a decrease in the volume of their transaction costs and also influenced the disintegration of some value chains and links of these chains. In the future, the creation of economic value not only by producers but also by consumers and the transfer of the created value by the latter to other consumers caused a subsequent decrease in the volume of transaction costs, which, in turn, led to the unification of producers and consumers in ecosystems. It is shown that platform ecosystems operate based on the “inverted firm” concept, i.e., a firm that can locate production outside the firm and use external labor due to network effects. This circumstance allows platform-type ecosystems to achieve a low production level and zero marginal costs and, accordingly, to scale the company at a high rate. It was revealed that the leadership in the costs of platform ecosystems is the main factor in their displacement from the market of enterprises of the traditional form of management.

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Critical Unstable Conditions in The Hospitality Industry: Presentation in The Paradigm of Systematic Approach

Critical Unstable Conditions in The Hospitality Industry: Presentation in The Paradigm of Systematic Approach

Journal of Economic Regulation, , Vol. 12 (no. 2),

The object. An urgent issue of modern economic science is the study of critical unstable states in macro-systems, including in the hospitality industry, have presented with using the cognitive potential of system analysis. The goal. As a scientific aim, the problem of systemic representation and reconstruction of critically unstable conditions has identified in the hospitality industry with the subsequent determination of their ontological status. At the same time, the hospitality industry is presented as an open system with inherent processes and probable vectors of evolutionary development. Methodology. The study is based on the conceptual resource of the systemic approach, which provided an opportunity to sufficiently analyze the structure of the studying subject and its ontological framework. The practice of structural-logical method in the framework of a systemic approach allows us to imagine the hospitality industry as integrity, which can be patently visualized. The instrumental nature of the clearly historical method in the research context, the genesis comes from classical academical point of view, it gave the possibility to identify and describe the critical states of the studying object in the historical context in XX–XXI centuries. Results. Based on the cognitive potential of the systemic approach, the structural-logical method and the clearly historical method, the authors have developed a structural-logical scheme for representing the hospitality industry (Figure 1). A terminological clarification of the critical unstable states of the system is given in relation to the hospitality industry. In schedule form (Table 1), the main critical unstable conditions of the domestic hospitality industry are systematized in XX–XXI centuries. Conclusions. In the presented text, the main findings of the study are systematized. The obtained results should subsequently become the basis for the formation of a research theoretical scientific base for the control of the corresponding semi-structured objects and systems in dynamically off-balance states.

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